Prostate cancer is an adenocarcinoma-type of cancer developed in a gland found only in men, just below the bladder. The prostate gland produces cells that make semen and nourishe the sperm, prostate cancer occurs due to a morphological change in the cell’s death process, causing cells to proliferate into a tumorous mass known as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or PIN. These are morphological cell changes which usually occurring in men over 50 years of age. Changes in the DNA make up of the prostate cells are usually hereditary in nature or it may be linked to high levels of androgens or IGF1 (male hormones) in the man’s body. Some of the causes leading to this mutation in the genes are still unclear since more research in this subject is still required.
One of the leading risks for prostate cancer is age, men over the age of 50 are at high risk levels. Risk levels for prostate cancer almost doubles by the time a man is 65 years, and triples if he is a smoker. Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in men and is most common among North Americans and Europeans and less common among Asian, South American and African descent. The only test that can fully confirm prostate adenocarcinoma is biopsy where the samples are taken for pathological examination and evaluation, where a tumor marker is confirmed.
Treatment for prostate cancer may involve a particular line of treatment, be it surgical removal (i.e. a prostectomy) cryosurgery, hormone replacement treatment, radiation or oral chemotherapeutic drugs or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis of the disease will depend on the pathophysiology and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient’s general health and tolerance to the chemotherapeutic drugs. The first line of treatment for prostate cancer is radical prostatectomy, either by retropubic approach (made by an incision through the stomach) or by perineal approach, made by an incision between the scrotum and the anus, this approach is widely accepted for those patients who do not need to have their lymph nodes removed. The risks for these types are surgeries are among the same risks taken in any type of major surgery, such as nerve damage, impotence and urinary incontinence. These particular risks are also involved in radiation and chemotherapy treatment or a combination of these treatments. Today more advanced treatments such as laparascopic procedures, robotic-assisted procedures as well as advances in cryotherapy and different variations of radiotherapy have a positive prognosis for the patient.